Kant et sa Philosophie (French Edition)

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During the repressive years of the Bourbon restoration - , Cousin, considered too liberal, was fired from the Sorbonne. Because of his knowledge of Germany, Cousin was sent to study the successful primary school systems of several German states, especially Prussia. His book Report of the State of Public Instruction in Prussia , recommending reforms to the French, was read abroad and stirred many Americans, Horace Mann and Calvin Stowe among other, to visit Prussia to learn how the budding American common school could best be guided in its development.

Against the skepticism of David Hume and the 18th century, Victor Cousin adopted the psychological approach which had made headway under Maine de Biran in France and under Thomas Reid in Scotland; in his later period, under the influence of Schelling, he added to this approach a Romantic cosmology. These principles lead us to understand how the world and the self are related in the ultimate substance, God, whose causal activity is the rational structure of the universe.

The Guizot Law of , which was a constitution for the French primary school system, was written by Cousin and based on his Report. Cousin developed a system of thought to which he himself, perhaps unfortunately, gave the name eclecticism and to which his critics, more justly, gave the name spiritualism. His moderate position--opposed, on the one hand, to the sensationalism of Condillac and the atheism and determinism to which that seemed to lead and, on the other hand, to Catholicism and the traditions of scholasticism--won him wide recognition; and his rare eloquence as a lecturer made him popular with generations of students.

This analysis will reveal, he taught, three basic kinds of facts: sensation gives us acquaintance, as the Scottish School of Common Sense has held, with the world about us; our own activity discloses the fact of human freedom; and reason enables us to apprehend certain basic principles of objective validity. Connections Cousin never married. Back to Profile. Photos Works. Main Photo.

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Formal logic, and, in union with it, analytic philosophy, often show the tendency to dissolve epistemology into syntax and semantics, and even pragmatics. The syntactical semantic functions, the reference relation, etc. Wittgenstein's reduction of thinking to the linguistic medium became an object of a philosophical position whose task was to explain and clarify language.

As a result, the ontology of the sciences acquires features which are best characterized by "regional linguistic ontology". An important result of Wittgenstein's reduction of thinking to language was the dissolution of conceptualistic ontology. Proceedings of the Sixth International Wittgenstein Symposium.

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Until the first appearance of the Latin word "ontologia" was known in two works published in Lorhard was an unknown author and the only reference I found to him is in the Syllabus auctorum , Vol. Wilhelm Risse 's outstanding work contains a bibliography of the published titles on philosophy up to about In Vol.


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II, - " Logica " of Risse's work, Jacobus Lorhardus is cited twice: year and year references are to the year of publication. Sangalli, , p. The title of the second work puzzled me: Ogdoas means "composed of eight elements" and the title cited only three disciplines. May 16, , I discovered that this work was the first edition of the Theatrum philosophicum and that the word " ontologiae " appeared in the complete title:.

Kant et le problème de la métaphysique — Wikipédia

In he became "Rektor des Gymnasiums" in the protestant city of St. In he published his book Ogdoas scholastica, on the frontispiece of which the word "ontologia" appears - probably for the first time ever in a book. In , i. For some reason, however, his stay in Marburg became very short and after less than a year he returned to his former position in St. Lorhard died on 19 May, Later, in , Lorhard's book was printed in a second edition under the title Theatrum philosophicum.

However, in this new edition the word "ontologia" has disappeared from the front cover but has been maintained inside the book. Here the word "ontologia" is only mentioned briefly as follows: "ontologia, philosophia de ente" i. October 27, Dr. Marco Lamanna, Bari University Italy send me some important details:. The neologism ontologia appears four times in the course of the work. On three occasions it occurs in the genitive singular Ontologiae : on the frontispiece, in the title of the section on metaphysics, and at the end of this same section.

Only on one occasion in the dedicatory letter does the word appear in the accusative case Ontologiam. This work, the second amplified edition of the Ogdoas Scholastica , and appeared posthumously at Basel in The parts that appear here in addition to the material in the Ogdoas are the sections on Hebrew grammar, arithmetic, geometry and music.

In the dedicatory letter of the Theatrum philosophicum , Lorhardus writes " hancque Dodecada Scholasticam confeci " i. In September I confirmed that the part of the work dealing with metaphysics Metaphysices seu Ontologiae Diagraphe is identical in the Ogdoas and in the Theatrum , and also discovered that Lorhardus was not the author of this chapter. In fact, what Lorhard did was to create a diagrammatic representation, in the Ramist tradition, of the Metaphysicae Systema methodicum of Clemens Timpler, which ran through nine editions, including some unauthorized imprints Steinfurt , Lich , Hanau , Frankfurt a.

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Since Lorhard finished working on his Ogdoas Scholastica the dedicatory letter was dated 24 February , he could presumably only have had the editions of Timpler's work to consult. Lorhard faithfully repeats most of the theorems with which Timpler had begun each of his chapters, except for a few minor differences, explicable by the fact that Lorhard was adapting Timpler's work to diagrammatic form and that the Ogdoas was a book for studiosis adolescentibus of the Gymnasium in Sankt Gallen where he was rector.

The only important difference is that Lorhard introduces a new word, not found in Timpler, " Ontologia ", by which he means all metaphysics. In the title page of the Ogdoas and in the title of his Ramistic diagram, Lorhard equates the two words with the phrases " Metaphysices, seu Ontologiae ", and " Metaphysicae seu Ontologiae Diagraphe " respectively. A similar phrase also occurs in the dedicatory letter. Theory and History. In the work, Lorhard for the most part discusses the theme of the omnipresence of Christ in the world, contrasting every pantheistic degeneration.

Gallen and published posthumously in Perhaps this is the reason that led his return to St.


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Gallen from Marburg, just four months later, in semptember Stumme eds. According to the last printed edition of the Oxford English Dictionary Second edition, the first occurrence of "ontology" was in An Universal Etymological English Dictionary by Nathaniel Bailey born? With a Variety of Rules to Guard against Error, in the Affairs of Religion and Human Life, as well as in the Sciences wrote: "In order to make due enquiries into all these, and many other particulars which go towards the complete and comprehensive idea of any being, the science of ontology is exceeding necessary.

This is what was wont to be called the first part of metaphysics in the peripatetic schools" I. Locke's Essay on the Human Understanding. To which is subjoined a brief Scheme of Ontology, or the Science of Being in general with its Affections " The poet Christian Weise - in a novel published in German in with the pseudonym Catharinum Civilem made use of the Latin "ontologia":. February, 24th I received this message from Dr.

Aalborg University, Denmark on the origin of "ontology" in Denmark:. When the book was published Kraft was a professor mathematics and philosophy at the Soroe University. Lorhard, Jacob. According to the Bibliographia philosophica vetus, Pars 1. Gallen, Switerland. From , a fourth copy is available in the "Fondo Young sulla memoria e la mnemotecnica" Morris N. Wegelin, Thomas. Disputatio Theologica De Christo.

Tubingae: Gruppenbach. Rodolphus, Goclenius. Lobetantz, Matthias.

saicoajasifop.ml Alsted, Johann Heinrich. II with the title: Septem artes liberales, quae constituunt tertium encyclopediae philosophicae tomum. Reprint of the edition: Encyclopaedia. Septem tomis distincta - Stuttgart: Frommann-Holzboog, Capsius, Liborius. Sapientia Vulgo Metaphysica Idealis. Pro Acquirenda Philosopho-Theologica Akribeia. Calov, Abraham. Flottwel, Johann. Disputatio Prima Ontologica D. Regiomonti: Johanni Reusneri. Caramuel y Lobkowitz, Juan. Rationalis Et Realis Philosophia. Clauberg, Johannes.

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